Yellow Gold is So Last Year – Men's White Gold Rings Are All the Rage

White gold is produced when gold is alloyed with white metals like nickel or palladium. The purity of gold is measured in karats like the normal gold. The characteristics of white gold depend on the proportions of the metals used and their properties. When yellow gold is alloyed with nickel, the resulting white gold acquires the properties of nickel which is strong and hard. It is mostly used to make pins and rings. And when the yellow gold is alloyed with palladium then the resulting gold acquires the properties of palladium which is pliable and soft making it a better choice for setting gemstones.

Gold is used widely in making jewelry and ornaments ranging from rings, bracelets, chains etc. The men’s white gold rings are very rare and come in traditional designs. Most of the men’s rings are designed in yellow gold. But with good design and trendy models to white gold rings have picked up popularity. They are usually used in engagements and weddings. They are also available in combination’s with various birthstones. The yellow gold rings may be impressive but the rings have now come out to simplicity, sleekness and elegance. With broad and heavy designs and sturdy gems the rings are no longer a fashion for women but men too.

One must however be very careful in selecting the gems for the white gold rings, be it for women or if you are trying to buy the men’s white gold rings. The gems should match with the color and give a strong and contrasting look. Black, blue sapphires and green gemstones are the most demanded gemstones on white gold. The rings range from various models like flat wedding bands, sleeve rings, solitaire rings, trinity rings, cluster rings, eternity rings etc. an eternity ring usually symbolizes eternity with a partner, a promise ring is usually worn to remind oneself of the promises one has made, the engagement rings are worn to indicate that the person is engaged, a class ring is usually worn by the graduates of a class, a mothers ring is worn by mothers with the birthstone of each of her child. In this way the ring models come with huge significance and varieties.

The men’s gold rings are the preferred choice by women as the best gifts for their men. They could be gifted on valentines day, fathers day, graduation day, engagement day, marriage etc. but one must consider the style preference of the men being gifted. The ring that you like may not be liked by the man you selected for. So you must make note of the mans style and lifestyle. If a simple man is gifted a very stylish ring then it would not look much like a perfect gift. It is always wise that you see the simplicity and fashion tastes of the men. Gold reflects great simplicity and at the same time a contemporary style too.

How to Choose Your Rose Gold Watch?

Rose gold is one of the most beautiful choices for jewelry. It is also known as Russian gold, although this term has become somewhat rare. It not only inherits the luxury feature of gold but also displays something much more fascinating for the eyes. It is not as flashy as gold. But it looks still nice and classy. At present, Russian gold timepieces are very popular. If you are shopping for nice Russian gold timepieces, the information below may be helpful.

Decide the Color of Your Watch

The first thing you should take into consideration is the color of the watch, namely, how rosy you hope your timepieces will be. People create Russian gold by combining gold and copper together. Therefore it has a reddish look. The different amount of copper in the gold decides the level of the color. Russian gold has 3 levels of color – pink gold, rose gold and red gold.

Other Colors for Your Watch

When you have decided the level of color, you can choose other colors you like. For example, timepieces for men are usually black watches or gold watches which only have touches of Russian gold since pink gold is not suitable for men’s watches. A black watch strap with a watch face of rose gold and black is a good option for men. However, women’s rose gold timepieces can be entirely made of rose gold. Or they may be made of silver and rose gold in the design. What’s more, don’t forget to choose a right watch band such as metal, leather or ceramic.

The style of Your Watch

Russian gold watches have a lot of styles such as classic, traditional, romantic, effeminate, modern, strong and futuristic. The most important thing is that you must choose the style according to the occasions in which you want to wear your watch. Don’t forget to think about other additional features such as sapphire and diamond.

What’s Your Budget?

Rose gold timepieces are available at different prices. Some cheap watches are priced less than $100 while some expensive ones are priced at more than $10000 each. Do you want to buy a luxury watch for some formal occasions? Do you need one to wear daily? No matter for what occasion or for whom you are shopping, you must decide your budget before you begin to shop in order to find your ideal watch efficiently.

What’s Your Ideal Brand?

Some people don’t care much about the brand of the timepieces. But there are still many people who only buy watches of designer brands like Omega. These people believe that designer brands are symbol of quality and status. Do you care about the brand? If you do, make sure that there is a balance between your budget and your desire.

The functions of Your Watch

After you have decided the brand, style and budget, you must think about the functions of your Russian gold watch. For instance, some watches are shock-resistant and solar-powered. If you are interested in these functions, you may want to have a look at that watch.

In a word, before you make your decision to buy your Russian gold timepiece, you must take style, functions and cost into consideration. Hope the information (stated above) will be helpful for you.

Personal Style – Born or Learned?

Recently, I read a piece of news about David Beckham on VOGUE. In the article, Beckham admitted that he remembers some of his previous fashion choices with a sense of trepidation. Although Beckham mentioned that he does not have any regrets, he can’t believed that he had actually chosen to wear certain apparels before.

I believed many of us can relate well to Beckham’s past experiences with his fashion choices. Looking back at old photographs, we may wonder to ourselves, “What were we thinking?”

The above illustration is a good indication that one’s personal style is capable of evolving over time. Such changes can be affected by many factors such as fashion trends as portrayed in the media, peer influences, personal creativity and even one’s occupation. So if you feel that you are stuck in a style rut because you are born without any sense of style, think again.

Take for example you are indeed “born” with a poor sense of style. Such a situation can readily be solved if you make the effort to upgrade your knowledge in this arena. One way to do so is to be very open with experimenting with different apparels and finding out what you look good and feel comfortable with. If you cannot trust your own opinion, go shopping with friends and family who are interested in fashion or engage a Style Coach/Personal Shopper to give you professional advice on what fits you best in relation to your body shape and lifestyle needs. Draw inspiration from people (e.g. celebrities) whose fashion style you admire. Learn to visualize (i.e. see in your mind’s eyes) how you want to look for an event or occasion and works toward achieving it. This is very much like how many of us work towards achieving the look we wanted for a school prom when we were still in school. It will also help to take some time to assess your wardrobe and pull out items that are out of date or which you never wear anymore due to factors such as lifestyle changes and age. Replace these items with apparel and accessories that are compatible with your current situations.

Always remember and have faith that achieving a great personal style is not an not achievable feat. Help in this area is always just around the corner if you are truly committed to finding your path to looking good and feeling great. Many a times, it is your willingness to change, strong determination and enthusiasm which will decides whether you can successfully create a great style which you can call your own.

Fashion Styles For Tall Women

There are many different types of tall women, long legged, long bodied, slim, hourglass; and it’s important to work out what your specific shape is – if you don’t already know. Often tall women get labelled as one particular category, which can be frustrating and very confusing when it comes to creating a wardrobe.

Keep these simple rules in mind:
– create layers to help balance your figure, for example, if you have a smaller bust, adding ruffle details and higher necklines will keep you in proportion, or if you have an undefined waist pop on a layered high waisted skirt and a belt to cinch you in and mimic curves
– long bodies require shorter top lines and higher waist lines, long legs need longer top lines and lower waist lines; so if you have a longer body than legs, invest in 50s style dresses and styles, but longer legs can layer long tops over jeans for a trendy day look
– the larger your bones, the bigger your jewellery; look at pictures of yourself in different kinds of jewellery, dainty and chunky, and decide which makes you look more in proportion, as well as which makes you look more like ‘you’
– tall women are really the only ones who can pull off couture looks and extraordinary shapes – oversized clothing looks awesome on taller ladies, as do short haircuts, bold stripe prints, printed tights, rompers/playsuits

Not only should you take your shape into consideration, but you ought to develop your own individual clothing style and taste – whether that’s a slightly androgynous, boyish look or a super sexy Amazonian style.

Essential items for any tall woman’s wardrobe:
– skinny, straight leg or slim boot cut jeans – a good fitting pair of jeans is a casual day staple, you can pair them with anything, and inject your own style personality when choosing them too
– well fitted jacket or coat – one of the secrets of the stars is a good fitting coat, no matter what shape
– waist belt – this is essential for helping define your shape, and adding curves to a tall frame
– scarves – any kind of scarves will do, but for those with a small chest, this is the best accessory to own for quickly adding a touch of glamour and making you look in proportion
– dresses – any girls best friend is a beautiful dress, but tall girls require several of these in their wardrobes to help them look feminine and flirty – there are several style which look great, try on all sorts to find one that really looks great on your particular body, halter, t shirt, oversized, fitted, bodycon, maxi, a-line, princess cut…
– flats – pretty and comfortable ballerinas are the most important addition to your closet, as they will be perfect for everyday wear and will go with anything if you have them in a few different colors.

Check out photos of these female celebrities over 5’10” for inspiration and ideas:
Blake Lively, Sophie Dahl, Nicole Kidman, Liv Tyler, Jodie Kidd, Elle Macpherson, Mandy Moore, Cameron Diaz, Rihanna, Queen Latifah, Elizabeth Jagger, Joss Stone, Claudia Schiffer, Christy Turlington, Famke Janssen, Taylor Swift, Uma Thurman, Geena Davis, Eleanor Roosevelt, Julia Child, Princess Diana, Erin O’Connor

Physical Beauty or Glamour, Fashion, Style and Elegance?

Beauty, it is often said, is in the eye of the beholder. Although every person has his or her definition of what beauty really is, in general it is considered as all the pleasing and favorable physical characteristics that can be seen in an individual. You can be ugly to one person and beautiful to the next; in any case, we define physical beauty by how we see it. And as always, beauty often leads to attraction and it greatly helps in the development of relationships both romantic and otherwise.

However, for those who think or consider themselves to be lacking in physical beauty, it usually leads to a lack of self-esteem and sense of style. Because of this seeming deficiency, they often lack glamour and they usually lag behind in fashion trends. But physical beauty can be enhanced by fashion and style, and people who consider themselves to be ugly can assume a sort of glamour that can be had by not following them.
More often than not, it takes a high level of self-confidence for a person to form his or her opinion about physical beauty. There are those who believe that beauty is beauty and there is no other substitute for it, others would see beauty in an ugly person because they see characteristics that are unique or special in that person. Fashion and style by themselves should not be means to an end, instead, they can be dispensed of and you can still be beautiful all the same.

Also, it is possible to be beautiful regardless of a lack of glamour, fashion, and style. Prevailing misconceptions and biases notwithstanding, an ugly person should believe that he or she is beautiful in his or her own special way. Beauty should not be defined by these three attributes; instead, they should be integral to how the person views himself or herself.

As stated above, you can be ugly and yet still be beautiful in your own special way. Ugliness lends to a sense of uniqueness and charm that can only come when it is viewed in a positive way. You can be fat and because of this, you see yourself to be lacking in glamour and style because elegant and stylish persons tend to be seen as fashionably thin. But that does not mean that you cannot indulge in the latest fashion trends and emerge as being fashionably fat. You may have bulging eyes, a comely face, and a generally homely aura, but if you have a pleasant personality and enough self-confidence, you are still able to make friends and partners. It all boils down to how you view yourself; you can establish your own sense of style and assume a certain level of fashion that will help you go by.

Whatever other people say, you are who you are and that alone should make up for all of your physical shortcomings. You and you alone must realize that glamour, fashion, and style are not necessarily needed if you see yourself as beautiful.

A New Kind of Fashion – Style Your Electronic Device With Amazing Skins

Now a days fashion doesn’t stop at your wristwatch or bracelets, but can be carried through to your electronics as well. Cell phone and laptop skins/covers have the ability to provide more than just a protective seal to help preserve your electronic device, but can also be an extension of your personal style. A large percentage of people are stuck to their electronic devices, whether it is their smart phone or laptop, you have probably heard someone who forgot it at home say they feel naked without it. So not unlike you would with an outfit, why not personalize this electronic appendage and use it as an outlet of self-expression and style.

There are thousands of different cover colors, sizes designs and textures to choose from; including jewelled, leather, bulky, slim, graphic labels and more. The options don’t end there though! If you can’t find a covering or case that truly expresses your fashion sense, you can choose to enhance your device with a custom designed covering. Certain companies now offer the choice to custom create a cover for your electronic device at a comparative price. Your electronic device doesn’t have to look dull and generic, but now can reflect you’re individual fashion sense.

If you are like one of the many members of society who uses your electronic device for everything from an alarm clock to map to communication tool it is important that you cover it in something that is aesthetically pleasant and makes you feel good inside. Whether it is a cute puppy dog face, your company logo, jewels, a country flag or an intricate design it is important for you enjoy looking at and handling your device. These skins can also be used for business purposes i.e for branding.

Don’t be afraid to change it up as well. Ideally your phone or laptop will have a long life and provide you with the means of connection and knowledge for many years. Having the same piece of electronic equipment for such a long time can get old, but with fresh skins and covers you can keep it exciting. It is important to provide your phone or laptop with the protection it needs, but you don’t need to compromise style and fashion for phone safety. Generally you should enjoy your appearance as a whole, so there is no reason not to dress up your practical digital accessories that is always with you by your side as well.

Defining Your Personal Style

You may be wondering what exactly “personal style” means. Although the term extends far beyond clothes, we are referring to it in the context of fashion. Personal style is an artistic expression of yourself and your personality through appearance.

Each of us is unique. We have our own opinions, ideas and thoughts. That’s why finding your personal fashion style is important to create that distinctive look.

Creating your own personal style is one way to show people who are you, it’s like building your own brand. The clothes you wear say a lot about your personality. You want to create a look that is true about you to attract the people and attention that you want. Trends go in and out but your own personal style is something that defies the latest fad and endures over time.

Here are some tips to help you define your personal style:

Although everyone has personal style, not everyone knows how to express it. Think of the ideal you. Combine your taste, lifestyle, interest, desires, inspirations, aspiration and history together.

Next, try thinking of some words that you would use to describe yourself to someone who doesn’t know you or think of how you would like others to describe you. For instance, are you Conservative? Outgoing? Direct? Romantic? I call these your “style words.”

For instance, if you are especially romantic, you will probably find yourself drawn to ultra-feminine, tailored blouses and other items that have delicate lace, beading and handwork.

Now, take a look at your clothes. Do they match your personality or your “style words”? If so, you have defined your personal style. If not, you might need to go through the next step. Go through magazines such as Elle, InStyle, Marie Clare, Lucky, Harper’s Bazaar and even department store catalogs. Circle clothes and outfits that appeal to you. Now, using your words from above, determine if the clothes you like match those words or your personality. Go to the store, try on clothes that you think align with your personality. You will slowly begin to see how to make clothing choices that fit who you are.

By simply knowing what works for you will make your “what to wear” morning decision fun and easy. It will increase your feelings of confidence as you show the world who you really are. Having your own personal style allows you to set the trends among your friends. Being fashionable allows you to exude confidence and “own” whatever makes you look and feel your best.

Remember to have fun personalizing your unique look. Don’t be afraid to experiment a little and to be creative.

Every woman deserves to look Fashionable, Confident and Stylish. Are you ready to be “The Stylish You”?

Fashion Style and Rules – Dos and Don'ts

Where do fashion rules come from? Is there a fashion board that decides what we should and should not wear, or what ‘goes together’ and what looks bad? Not hardly. The rules and lists we read to guide our fashion choices are produced by fashion columnists and editors as part of the business of selling magazines and drawing an online readership. Take this into account when making your choices, and consider the rules more like guidelines than absolutes.

In fact, to be truly fashionable you should be breaking the rules occasionally. An overly fussy and cautious approach to fashion makes you look like a follower rather than an innovator. Instead, try breaking some of the rules below to add some twist to your style.

Your colors should not clash: What a limiting belief! People often think that there are colors that you should wear together and colors that “clash” and should never be combined. This narrows your choices considerably. Instead, why not indulge in unusual combinations from time to time?

Stay away from the extreme end of clashing; there are colors that do look horrible together. But, colors that don’t seem to naturally ‘go together’ can be visually stunning when worn in combination. Most fashionable dressers play with combinations that stop just short of horribly clashing.

Save bright jewelry for nighttime: This rule doesn’t make sense, if you think about it. Most jewelry isn’t harmed by sunlight. Why set aside some for strictly nighttime use?

Have fun with some of your brighter pieces by wearing them during the day on occasion.

Play up eyes or lips, but not both: Many women believe that you can wear striking eye makeup but then need to have a neutral lip, or if you wear a colored lipstick you should be very light with the eye makeup. But there is no reason for this caution.

Choose colors from the same color family – you don’t want a cool-toned lip and a warm-toned eye or the face will feel disjointed. Then, apply with a slightly lighter hand than you would if you were only playing up one or the other. You’ll be surprised with how flattering the results can be.

Fashion Style Tips For Women – How to Pick the Perfect Figure Flattering Dress For Your Figure

Luckily for us and our wardrobes, the faithful frock’s made a dramatic comeback. It’s no wonder we’ve loved dresses for so long and with good reason; this style staple is so flattering whatever your shape. Just think how fabulous curvy Marilyn Monroe or slender Audrey Hepburn looked in theirs. Whichever way you look at it, the dress has bags of pizzazz and is used by many women on the Continent in Spain, France, Germany or Portugal to create an effortless style statement. So why not steal a few top tips from Europe’s most stylish women on how to wear them?

Inch Losing Dresses Delivered to Your Door

What dress you choose really depends on your height and shape and with the right choice you could save inches outwards as well as adding inches upwards. So, where to start? If you’re slightly fuller in the bust like many British and German women you should probably steer clear of high neck dresses, instead, try going for a deep v-neck to balance out your heavier top half and lengthen your legs. Equally, for a rounded figure or apple shape, a dress with a pleated waist will help skim over lumps and bumps and give the illusion of a smoother, lither body. If you have a slender Mediterranean figure like the French and Spanish and crave curves, a great dress can help you you can say au revoir to the ironing board chest; try wild animal prints to give the clever illusion of a waist and with a great belt your bust will look bigger too. If a heavy bottom half weighs you down, disguise thighs with a classic wrap dress, just make sure there’s enough fabric to glide over the top part of your legs and bottom to flatter your fabulous form.

How to Accessories Dresses

Finally, dressing up your dress with seasonal or fashionable accessories really can make the difference between a fashion faux pas and a show stopping entrance. So ladies, think like your stylish European neighbors, play with on trend colors and always, always team with fantastic footwear like the Portuguese, a cute bag and if you’re an ex-pat in Europe, you know by now, that no stylish outfit is complete without those essential oversized sunglasses for instant Riviera style glamour.

Recreating Vintage Fashion Styles

Vintage clothing is all the rage having gone from being a quirky trend to mainstream fashion. The celebs are doing it and so the masses have turned to it too.

To do the vintage look right you’ve got to have the makeup to match the clothes. If you don’t pay attention to what works on the makeup side of things, you could end up looking like a vintage disaster. Take a look at this guide to see how to successfully pull-off the complete vintage look.

Vintage Fashion Has Gone Mainstream

The world of fashion has fallen in love with the vintage look all over again. Models strut in exotic and elaborate vintage designs and designers are doing their best to create the old-fashioned feel by designing vintage clothes and accessories.

Vintage fashion does not stop there. Even makeup is getting the vintage makeover. Every decade has its own makeup trends and vintage fashion is now incorporating the appropriate trend to get the perfect look.

Retro glamour is the coolest thing now and celebrities like Adele and Dita Von Teese have popularized old-fashioned makeup and vintage trends for the masses.

It All Began In The 1920s

Makeup became a popular phenomenon in the 1920s. This era was characterized by the Flapper style, featuring a pale look contrasted by bright red lips. This vintage trend was punctuated with kohl eye-shadow and mascara for the dark eyes.

The 1920s was also the age of glorious rebellion. Models wore scandalously short hemlines rising to the knees in Boardwalk Empire shows. Women began showing off not just their legs, but their arms and hips also. Do not be stingy with the lipstick and eye-shadow when trying to recreate the vintage fashion look of the 1920s.

1930s – The Sophisticated Look Is In

The 30s saw makeup becoming more sophisticated and refined. Bow-shaped lips went out of fashion and focusing on the upper lip became the next vintage trend. The upper eyelashes received generous quantities of eye-shadow while the lower ones were left untouched. Pencil-thin eyebrows made sure that the heavy and made up look of the 20s was replaced by something more elegant.

The simple and sophisticated look dominated Hollywood, symbolized by the glamorous long gowns that helped enhance the overall elegant and sensual feel of vintage fashion in the 30s.

1940s – Functional Styling

Not surprisingly, vintage fashion in the 1940s was dominated by the military look. Dark foundation makeup and strong eyebrows were in vogue. Light red with a hint of orange was preferred for the lips.

1950s Vintage Fashion Gets A Makeover

The 50s saw Grace Kelly and Audrey Hepburn give way to Parisian couture trends dominated by designers like Jacques Fath, Balenciaga and Dior.

Post war, the feminine look was back in fashion and pink dominated the vintage makeup trends. Lips were given a voluptuous look with rouge and pastel colors applied with a lip liner to extend the natural border of the mouth.

How To Approach Vintage Fashion

If you are thinking of replicating vintage fashion trends, then make sure you choose your decade carefully.

The secret to making a success of any fashion style is to make sure you are comfortable with how you look, especially when venturing to new territory. Don’t be afraid to try new styles like the vintage look, but be sure that you still feel good. Any lack in confidence about your appearance will convey itself in your demeanour and is sure to result in failure.

Enhance Your Fashion Style With Wonderful Fashion Accessories

Though it may be overstated that one could lose the glamour without wearing fashion accessories, it is true that they can indeed add a touch of sparkling attraction to one’s personality and personal style. Only with the proper fashion pieces can one’s outfit be completed perfectly. Thus, it is extremely important to wear the right accessories in an appropriate way.

Usually, fashion accessories consist of various beautiful pieces, such as shoes, handbags, belts, rings, necklaces, bracelets, earrings, pendants and many others. Women will never stop their craze about these gorgeous accessories, especially jewelry, shoes, and handbags. Faced with so many fantastic options, one should always keep in mind that a wise fashion enthusiast will only buy the most suitable items rather than bring all the trendy shoes, handbags, jewelries at home which turn out to be inappropriate at all.

In order to choose the most ideal accessories, one should know well about how they can work well with different types of clothes and accentuate the outfit. However, this doesn’t mean that you need to buy all kinds of accessories to match each of your dresses. On the contrary, the real fantastic pieces are rather versatile and can be paired with almost all kinds of apparel.

Different people have different preference and tastes, hence, fashion designers will constantly release numerous new collections of fashion accessories every season. Women who are not quite sure about their own style can pay attention to the fashion reports on the newest trends and what the celebrities and fashion icons wear, from which they can find inspirations.

Christmas Gifts Of 2017 For Women: Jewelry

Tips And Tricks For Getting The Most Out Of Your Jewelry

School teaches you about science and math and social issues, but you rarely learn about anything else in today’s school system. That’s why most people need little articles like these that are full of tips to help them out for any particular topic. In this instance, we’ll go over some great tips you can use related to jewelry.

Rich and vibrant turquoise is one of the most popular stones available. It is one of the most popular gemstones for the month of December and is often thought to invite feelings of love, good luck, and happiness. This particular gemstone is also the traditional gifting stone to celebrate the 11th wedding anniversary.

Pearl jewelry is a wonderful and versatile addition to a wardrobe. Pearls can often be accented with sparkling stones, used as an accent on a metal chain, or be shaped in interesting ways- the classical white strand of perfect spheres is certainly not the only way to wear them. Try a pearl necklace with diamond separators!

Do not purchase any jewelry from retailers in China. This country is notorious for selling fake gemstone and metal jewelry. Oftentimes, the jewelry advertised as sterling silver with real turquoise is just a piece of metal sprayed in silver and the turquoise is a fake piece of plastic. Such vendors may accept returns, but the hassle of shipping it back at your own cost, is usually not worth it. Be aware of scams like this.

To open a jump link when making chain jewelry, hold the jump link steady with pliers your left hand, and grip the opposite side of the opening with pliers in your right. Gently twist your hands towards each other. This twisting action helps the jump ring maintain its circular shape without distortion, which will occur if you try to push the sides together without twisting.

When shopping for jewelry, keep in mind the “cost per use” factor. If you will only wear those gorgeous, diamond earrings a handful of times, calculate how much money you are paying for each time you wear them. Pieces that you wear daily — like your wedding ring — are worth spending more money on, because your cost per use will be lower, and they will see more wear and tear.

Christmas

If you are shopping for seasonal brooches, try to buy them out of the season. By buying Christmas presents, valentine’s day brooches or Easter brooches out of the season, you can usually save a lot of money and acquire a quality piece of jewelry. So, if you are looking for a Christmas tree brooch or a snowman brooch, try to buy it in July. The best Christmas gifts of 2017 will definitely be jewelry

If you are in the market for a piece of jewelry you can realize significant savings by waiting for the right time of year to buy. Christmas and Valentine’s day are especially busy times of the year for jewelers, and they may be less likely to negotiate during these times of year.

Gifts

One thoughtful way to increase the impact of jewelry given as gifts is to coordinate jewelry given over time. A series of gifts, each of which matches previous pieces given, shows thoughtfulness and taste that is sure to be appreciated by the recipient. Building a matching set of jewelry through multiple gifts demonstrates a commitment to the relationship between giver and receiver.

If you are showering a woman with gifts on a regular basis, make sure that the jewelry items you are giving her are spaced out. If you fail to leave enough room in between each jewelry gift, she may get used to it and expect jewelry on a regular basis.

Jewelry is often very difficult to purchase for a friend or loved one because there are as many different styles and types of jewelry as there are people to wear it. Bracelets are a great solution for many and are available in a huge variety of styles made for the most fancy occasions to casual every-day wear. Plain silver and gold bangles are a staple for most women, but charm or sliding-bead style bracelets offer the buyer and the wearer the ability to completely customize the bracelet, as well as give the presenter a whole host of additional gifts to give in the future with the purchase of more charms or beads.

Jewelry is one of the best gifts to give to someone you care about. When purchasing jewelry as a gift, you should consider the person’s interests and lifestyle. For example, if they enjoy sports and the outdoors they may prefer more basic pieces. Think about what they enjoy doing, this should provide a good starting point when you are ready to purchase the jewelry.

When making or gifting jewelry, make each piece even more meaningful by selecting stones, beads, and colors that communicate different emotions. Green gems like jade and emeralds represent growth and vitality, which makes them ideal gifts for expectant mothers, newlyweds, or perhaps friends who are especially active in Eco-friendly lifestyles and initiatives.

Give the gift of relationship-appropriate jewelry. Jewelry gifts have a lot of potential for being misunderstood, so take stock of your relationship’s status and give jewelry that works for where the two of you are, not where you would like your relationship to be. Always check on the return policy and keep your receipt.

One of the biggest reasons that you need some great jewelry tips is that gold and jewels are items worth a lot of money. You need to protect your investment, and it doesn’t matter whether you’re buying, selling or storing your pieces of jewelry. Apply these tips and take care of your jewelry.

How to Find Good Wholesale Fashion Styles and Designs to Sell

If you are looking to start a business that will surely usher you a good amount of profit for yourself, you may need to start your own local clothing store.

If you are running a retail shop is not quite easy as you think it is, you have to start collecting the different styles, colors and designs of the latest trendy clothes of your choice from the wholesaler shop or store.

You also have to look for the latest fashionable clothing from their website that is in vogue. This will give you the option to choose from the style and design you prefer to buy from. Another option is that you can also contact different wholesale suppliers through the online site and choose the dresses of your choice.

There are some entrepreneur who fear that when they invest money on fashion clothing, that, they won’t be able to get the money they invested back. However, this may not be the reason why you should not be conscious of where to get most of the great deals.

That is why you should try wholesale clothing because in wholesale clothing that is where to get a great discount deal that allows you to have the best deal at an affordable price.

If you want to be able to succeed, There are lots of things you have to put into consideration first. When you are into selling wholesale fashion cloths, it’s important to look for a supplier that can be able to offers good reliable deals.

The wholesale clothing have great advantage that enable you to have the best variety of cloths and good designs at lower prices.

Some times you can be the most fashionable person, at the same time looking into your budget and staying within your budget.

Another great feature of you shopping from this wholesaler is that you can easily look through their website for good design clothes and different styles.

Ribbons, Trimmings and Fashion Accessories – Building Your Own Fashion Style

Have you ever wanted to get an effortless, sophisticated and chic look while avoiding the high sheer lace, chiffon or light fabric’s price tags?
Classy grown-up and sophisticated garment accessories trimmings can easily fit in with your personal style and persona when they are trims and accessories that have been choosing for the fashionable comfort and the self-assurance that they can provide.

The fashion industry always gives us envy to embrace fashion. Its weapon is celebrity’s red carpet, model cat walks or fashion weeks in fashionable European capitals all well talked about in fashion magazines…

If you are convinced that fashion accessories and haberdashery will make you noticed and set of that gossip and admiration murmurs then you would probably love to know where to get the chance to build up your own fashion style.

This interesting thing is that no matter where you are buying your outfit, embellishment ribbons and haberdashery chiffon can always help you blend the subtitles of tone in your wardrobe. You just need to mix and match them with an appropriate sense of what’s in vogue, style and elegance.

We all know that sometimes, it’s difficult to divert our attention from things, especially when its fashion related, that made us truly envious. This magnetic experience usually happens in the street when we are watching people or reading fashion magazines or even when reading about celebrities fashion gossip.

Hopefully, there are many ways to dress, feel and look as fashionable and confident wearing as if we sere wearing those same outfits that make us so jealous… and at an appropriate price tag! Fashion is about self-confidence. They are no other recipe for that.

Your fashion conscious people might want to be personal and creative while wearing your Cocktail dress at summer parties. Look glamorous, sensual and truly sensational, and of course feel every glance around you.

This is a history repeating itself: fabrics, trimmings, accessories, etc. are made to keep things very intense and interesting in world of fashion.
So get to know what to wear this summer; try and experience the best ways of embellishing at a non extortionate price tag.

Latest Fashion News: Style Watch, Steal That Style!

Many celebrities launch one of kind fashion styles! We are here to introduce to you the latest fashion news and ideas, some amazing styles, and ways you can get them to look stylish and fashionably elegant, just like a celebrity!

The clothes you wear reflect the mood you are in and the one you want to project. They represent the person you want to be even if sometimes, you feel very different from that image!

Stop feeling that you are not fashionable! Stop feeling that your clothes are not into style! Instead enjoy every second of fashion because now you can be in style like any of the celebrities you want or you like!

  • Adopt an all-white look, and rock simplicity with straight hair! You can try styling an A line skirt with a white top, it can be a cute style.
  • Go all Stefani mode and adopt a red suit! Add some style to it by adopting a crop top under the suit’s blazer!
  • Go classy with shorts, and adopt high wasted shorts with a white classic shirt and a nice pair of high heels shoes.
  • Adopt skinny jeans with a white shirt, and guess what? A cute and colorful oversized blazer! It will give you a cute style and edgy look.
  • Be unique by adopting flare pants and reviving the sixties, adopt these pants with a nice crop top and maybe a nice retro hairstyle for long and short hair.
  • Adopt the 90s fashion style in any way you hear desires. The chokers are back and this time they are looking amazing! You can adopt any type of choker necklace you want, whether a plain piece of ribbon, or a tattoo like choker, with all the black details. And for the edgy style lovers, you can pick a rock studded choker, or what we also call, spiked choker necklace. Or you can go for plaids as they have never been more in style than they are now! It’s over every piece of clothing for women and men. This fashion trend or style is somewhat universal as anyone who adopts it falls in love with it! Adopt scrunchies in your hairstyle design, as they will add volume in the Tina Turner technique.

What will your fashion identity be from now on?

Wonderful Christmas Gifts for Women – Jewelries

The most exciting moment that everybody looks forward to about Christmas is gift-giving time. It is also an important time for people to express their love and care to their friends and family by exchanging gifts. For women, if they receive jewelries from their friends or family on Christmas Day, they will feel rather delighted and appreciate the gift givers’ care very much. Here are some reasons why jewelries are wonderful Christmas gifts for women.

Diamonds or other valuable natural stones can carry values for a long time with proper maintenance. Women would like to treat them as a symbol of eternal love. If on Christmas day, the most important holiday of a year, you received such valuable jewelries from your lover, you could believe in his firm love to you.

Jewelries are wonderful fashion accessories which can go well with a lot of different outfit and, at the same, can add charm and elegance to women. For some important events, such as an evening party, ceremony or social gathering, sparkling jewelries can look noble and mature. People can also tell your personality and social status from what you wear.

For the gift givers, they will feel satisfied when the lady would appreciate and cherish the gift. As for the receivers, they will feel proud when they show off the jewelries and get envious feedback. For both of them, what they will treasure forever is their love to each other.

Any kind of jewelries including earrings, necklaces, bracelets, and rings can be your ideal options. Or you can directly buy a jewelry box which contains all these adorable pieces. No matter what kind of jewelries you finally decide to buy, she will appreciate your love very much.

Basic Wardrobe Planning is Easier If You Know Your Fashion Style – 3 Benefits & 8 Fashion Archetypes

Basic wardrobe planning may be more cohesive if you figure out your fashion style type. Some types of fashion, offered with the over-50 woman in mind, are:

  • arty or bohemian
  • sophisticated
  • sporty
  • suburban
  • professional
  • simply elegant (or elegant simplicity)
  • trendy or trend-setter.
  • romantic or sexy.

I call these fashion styles fashion archetypes, because they embody deeper needs and behaviors of our personalities. Expressing one of the types of fashion is a way of becoming the star of our own lives.

As we age, we may have to reassess our fashion style: The suburban mom takes a job and needs a professional wardrobe; the lawyer retires from her professional career and takes up her dream of landscape painting. The suits have to go.

Here are three advantages of basic wardrobe planning around a type of fashion that suits your personality and lifestyle:

  • Efficiency shopping and pulling an outfit together, even on the fly.

 

    If you decide your fashion style is sporty, you’re less likely to splurge on that emerald green, ruffled jabot blouse that you will only wear once a year. After all, it hardly goes with the khaki and charcoal cotton slacks that are the core of your comfortable daily uniform.

  • Spending limited wardrobe budgets on what will give us the most use. Basic wardrobe planning involves figuring out what types of fashion we most need. It makes sense to add a black skirt to our professional wardrobe when we understand we’ve got 18 tops and three jackets to team with it. Shopping for an item we might have spurned as too ordinary becomes a fashion triumph.
  • Feeling well-dressed and comfortable on every occasion. The best fashion advice for women is to decide what feels good and looks good on you. Your personal fashion style emerges from that. What looks and feels good changes over time. Periodic reassessment is essential.

Here’s a summary of eight fashion archetypes.

ARTY/BOHEMIAN

The arty look is colorful, quirky, sometimes ethnic, and always fearless. Natural fabrics are preferred. A snowy white poet’s shirt, an embroidered jacket that goes from work to art gallery reception, and a luxurious handbag are suggestions for the bohemian wardrobe.

SOPHISTICATED

The corporate executive wife and the charity fund-raiser are some typical lifestyle choices of women who express their inner creativity with sophisticated fashions. Wardrobe suggestions are a Chanel suit, a silk dress, gold cloche earrings and a diamond pendant necklace.

SPORTY

This fashion style is tailored. A blazer jacket is a must. It can be worn with a variety of durable, washable cotton pants, such as khaki, a good choice for the active, outdoorsy woman. Sweaters and sweater sets work well. A silk T-shirt adds sophistication. Avoid fussy prints and ruffles.

SUBURBAN

Suburban fashion goes from town to country with ease. She visits a corporate office in tailored slacks, a fuchsia shirt, an elegantly tailored long jacket, and pumps appropriate for lunch at a chic restaurant. Then she’s off to a soccer game. The pumps are replaced by rubber-soled loafers, the jacket with a sweater. Pick garments for their versatility.

PROFESSIONAL

The professional fashion archetype loves suits – pantsuits for every day, skirt suits for court, a tuxedo suit for formal occasions, and a tailored dress when a skirt is a must. Choose suits and tops so you can mix-and-match for maximum versatility. Add an embroidered vest for pizzazz.

SIMPLY ELEGANT

If you’ve asked yourself What Would Jackie [Kennedy Onassis] Do?(book by Shelley Branch and Sue Callaway) Or What Would Audrey [Hepburn] Do? (by Pamela Keough), this is your fashion archetype. Stock your closet with solid colors and garments with simple lines such as the A-line, princess, and cheongsam dresses. Shop at designer consignment shops to achieve this look on a budget.

TRENDY/TREND-SETTER

The older woman who adopts the latest fashion trends may end up looking as if she is desperately clinging to her passing youth. For best effect, add fashion trends to classic costumes. For example, an outrageous jacket, with lots of bling and some feather accents, might be worn with simple black or white beneath. Experiment. Every fashion mistake can be changed tomorrow.

ROMANTIC

Flirty grows up after 50 or risks appearing as if life has passed her by. Ruffles, but not frills; clinging fabrics that hug curves without being skintight; and decollete that knows when to quit are hallmarks of the romantic fashion archetype. Strive for glamor and sensuality using texture and a bit of bling.

In summary, knowing and expressing your fashion archetype starts with identifying the fashion styles that fit your lifestyle and personality. Buy clothes that look and feel just right. Basic wardrobe planning is a snap when we build our clothes collection with our personal type of fashion in mind.

Stores Where You Can Find Your Jewelry Watches

Jewelry watches represent commitment, love and thoughtfulness. It might take a while to find the perfect look within your price range, but in the end, you’ll be glad you selected this no-fail gift. Jewelers are more than happy to help you select the perfect item, while providing you with warranties and repair information before you buy.

While you may find good deals online, there are several stores that will guarantee the authenticity of their jewelry watches and provide you with an optimal service plan.

Jewelry watches come in all shapes, sizes, colors, bands, jewels, metals and price ranges. It’s best to begin shopping with a game plan. Have an idea what you want to spend and which brands you like. Generally, the sales associates are more than happy to help you find the perfect gift.

The benefit of going with a retailer instead of shopping online is that you can guarantee authenticity of your product because you don’t want to end up purchasing a fake Rolex. You can also get a better warranty with accessible customer service and you don’t have to pay for shipping.

There are some brands that specialize in reasonably priced jewelry watches. For example, Seiko, Fossil, and Guess offer some elegant choices in the $100 or less range. Macy’s Department Store shoppers can often find them on sale, priced down by as much as $100!

Also, they frequently run sales that include a bonus gift, such as a diamond accent pendant for only $49 with your watch purchase. The great thing about Macy’s is that their warranties are amazing!

For instance, you could buy a women’s Fossil bracelet watch with a sparkling Swarvoski crystal and stainless steel band, a diamond marker and Mother of Perl inlay for $57 and you’ll receive an 11 year warranty! In the next price bracket, Kay’s and Zales Jewelers has a really nice selection of Seiko, Citizen and Bulova men’s jewelry watches with diamond accents for under $200.

For the big spenders, Tiffany and Company has become a symbol of high taste. When women see the box, they know something extraordinary is inside. Starting at $1,000 and going all the way up to $54,000 for an 18-karat white gold and diamond piece, these ones are designed to impress. Zales carries men’s and women’s Movado watches in the $2,000 – $5,000 range.

If you’re looking for the extreme in high-end ones, you will have to visit New York City or Toronto to find an authorized Rolex dealer in North America. Of course, Omega, Tag Heuer, Gucci and Breitling watches may be easier to find at your local jeweler with some styles available in the low thousands.

Online browsing is a great way to figure out what you’re looking for prior to going into a store and meandering around. Get an idea of jewelry watches styles, brands and price ranges you prefer. Then watch your loved one’s eyes light up at the thoughtfulness you’ve displayed!

Fashion Tips For Men Over 40

When you hit age 40, there is a good chance you will feel like you have a fulfilling and secure lifestyle. You feel secure about your career, your family, and even your style. Your unique sense of fashion may not be as secure as you think though. Over the past 20 years or so, styles have changed constantly, but you believe you have chosen a timeless and classic style to wear. However, even though the suits, chinos, and patterns you wore five years ago might have rocked, do they still work today?

Tips For Men’s Fashion

Finding the right sense of fashion after all these years can be difficult. Here are a few tips you should consider when you are trying to figure out if your style is right for today’s society.

  • Avoid the Fads – You have most likely seen ‘the best’ styles changes constantly from year to year. Even in today’s world, there are fashion marketing campaigns, urging you to dress a certain way. Don’t fall for these ploys. By the time you are 40, your style should be timeless, not set in time. Most fads are aimed at certain age demographics, so many of them may not even work well for your age group. For instance, you would probably not look great wearing light up sneakers and a pair of skinny jeans with holes in the knees, even if every magazine is telling you that is what is in style.
  • Business vs Style – Even though your crisp dress shirt, silk tie, and two piece navy blue herringbone suit is the epitome of fashion in the workplace, it may not be the best option for fun after hours and on the weekends. Don’t confuse the two. Instead of strutting through a club or nice restaurant in your suit, choose a nice pair of chinos and a blazer.
  • Let the Past Go – While it may be tempting to celebrate when old fashions come back in style, don’t be fooled into pulling out your old wardrobe from the back of the closet. Chances are, these fashions are not exactly what they used to be. They typically have been updated to make them more contemporary and stylish.
  • Simplify It – One of the best fashion tips for men over 40 is keeping your wardrobe simple. Gone are the days of being flamboyant. Leave that style for men in their 20s and 30s. Your style should now be timeless, subdued, and sophisticated. Keep a clean and simple appearance as well. Your clothes should also be crisp and impeccable.
  • Be Proud Of You – If you really want to look great during your 40s, be proud of your age and your looks. Don’t try to stay in your 20s and adopt that generation’s style. Wearing age-appropriate fitted clothing and keeping yourself well-groomed is the best way to show off your masculine sophistication and your extraordinary sense of style.

Styles come and go, so it is best not to fall for every new fad that comes along. Whether you are wearing a nice pair of chinos or a savvy suit, you can maintain your own fashionable style, age gracefully, and remain timeless.

Bohemian Fashion – How to Look Like One Hot Boho-Chic Fashionista

Bohemian fashion is all about expressing yourself with a free-flowing sense of mind, combining garment styles from vintage, hippies, gypsies and exotic cultures.

This is where many women do wrong style-wise. Let me explain…

It’s a pretty casual outfit style which many women tend to over exaggerate, resulting in looking like a homeless street beggar. They either put on too many layers that their body size can’t handle or simply combine clothes in a way that says that they have absolutely no sense of fineness! It simply dampens the whole hotness of bohemian fashion.

The newest and fetching bohemian fashion style is simpler and not least, modern. Take a look at these 5 tips on how to achieve a boho yet chic look:

Layer It
Combine different garments on top of each other, starting with a basic tee, cardigan or sweater that is short enough to see the tee, jewelry and a scarf on top. The trick to staying stylish with many layers is to mix both fitted and loose pieces in one to balance out the look. Another note is to avoid piling on too many large and long layers. Basically, if it drags down your frame or draws attention away from your face then you know that there’s something wrong with your layering.

Inject Your Personality
Bohemian fashion is about wearing vintage and exotic garments but at the same time combine those with pieces that are YOU. Avoid dressing like a hippie or gypsy from top to toe. It’ll only look like a funny costume and people won’t take you seriously. By adding a little bit of personality you’ll look modern and chic! Blend boho fashion with your own signature style.

For example if you like classy garments then pair your paisley print tunic top with pearls and black pumps. Or if you have a little bit of diva in you just like Nicole Richie, then it doesn’t hurt combining luxurious-looking accessories such as heaps of gold and diamonds, or maybe a glamorous designer bag.

Use Earthy and Rich Colors
The bohemian fashion color palette is earthy, rich and rustic. Examples are: khaki green, off-white/cream, black, brown, deep purple, teal, mustard yellow, terracotta, tomato red, and metals such as gold and silver.

Bring Back The Past
The bohemian fashion concept revolves around wearing something unique. Vintage clothing and accessories are perfect examples of what unique fashion is. So I suggest that you implement “grandma” elements into your outfit with for example a floral scarf, lace details or perhaps a distressed-looking leather bag.

Explore our global community
The thing about boho fashion is that it’s very rich and expressive, so that’s why exotic details complement the look. Examples are: handweaved scarf from Peru, enameled cuff bracelets from India, paisley prints, etc.

Those 5 points are guaranteed to make you into a hot bohonista! So what do you think about the tricks to achieving a bohemian fashion style?

Taxi Medallions For Yellow Cabs of New York City

The Taxi Medallion of New York City

The New York City Taxi Medallion is an interesting form of property. It represents a transferable right granted by the City to pick up passengers, but through regulation the dollar value of this right is now nearing a million. In Fact, Some of the Richest Workers In America are Taxi Drivers In New York City.

Trading in the price range of $600,000.for the individual medallion, and almost three quarters of a million for the coveted corporate or “mini” fleet medallion, the New York City Taxi industry has seen its overall value increase by almost five-hundred percent since the turn of the century.

The Taxi Medallion is a special license plate affixed to the hood of a New York City Yellow Taxi cab. It represents the license for picking up passengers from the streets. No other transportation service has this right.

The medallion system began in the 1930’s. In the 1960’s all medallion taxicabs were required to be painted yellow.

The medallion number is must be clearly visible on the taxicab roof light, license plates, as well as on the door exterior, and in the vehicle interior.

There are different types of “Medallions”. The individual, the corporate or fleet medallion, and the Handicap Access Medallion.

The individual medallion requires the owner (post 1990), to operate the yellow taxicab 210 nine-hour shifts per year. This underlying requirement guarantees the availability of taxi transportation. It is not unusual for two taxi drivers to form partnerships and share the medallion, or for an individual owner to lease out the taxi for the shifts he is not working.

The corporate or fleet medallion does not need to be operated by the owner. In fact, the owner need not have a NYC Taxi operator’s license at all. The fleet medallion can be leased, and often is on a shift-by-shift basis, twice per day, for as much as $140 per twelve hour rental.

There is a network of brokers and agents who manage and lease taxicabs and medallions to independent taxi drivers under daily, weekly, and long-term arrangements for investors.

As an investment, the most interesting aspect of the New York City Taxi Medallion is the anti-cyclical valuations. In2009, as the US and world economies are shrinking, medallion value is soaring.

When banks and stock brokerages, construction companies and retailers lay off workers, one of the first places the unemployed workers seek income is in the taxi industry. So, as the general economy suffers the number of available taxi cabs shrinks as more people seek them and those already working are forced to work more shifts as competition for fares increases.

There are a limited number of medallions. Currently just over 13,200. This number was constant at 11,787 for more than sixty years when in the 1990’s then Mayor Rudolph Giuliani approved NY City Taxi & Limousine Commissioner Christopher Lynn to conduct three auctions, selling four hundred medallions.

The sales netted the City approximately one hundred-million dollars. The politics behind the sales was very intense and telling, as shortly after the sales were completed the industry applied for and received a rate of fare increase. After a few short years another proposal for new medallion auctions was approved by Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

The successive medallion sales created slightly more than one thousand-forty new medallions. During these auctions the Handicap Access Medallion was introduced at a substantial discount to regular market prices. This was to entice owners to pay the extremely high price of retrofitting vehicles with automatic ramps to accommodate wheelchairs. They were all sold, and on a percentage basis have risen in value more than other medallions.

Is it Still Safe For Your Child to Ride a School Bus?

Riding a school bus to school in the mornings and the afternoons has been a tradition for many years now. It has always been a concern for parents on the first day their put their child on the bus because they worry about whether or not they will be afraid or if their safety should be a concern. Usually after the first couple of weeks it becomes routine and most parents never give it much thought after that.

However, in recent years there are a number of reasons that parents are having to be cautious when they have children that ride a school bus to and from their schools. This is because in recent years especially, there has been an alarming increase in the number of children that fight on the bus even as the bus drivers watch in their rear view mirror. There have been many serious incidents where children have been ganged up on by several other kids at one time.

Another concern that has just recently came to light is the risk of a child being molested on the bus by other children on the bus. Older students have been found guilty of molesting smaller kids as they ride to or from school. This is such a serious concern and fifty years ago such a thing occurring on a school bus would have been unthinkable.

There have also been incidents where small children have been accidentally left on the school bus in the morning after the run has been made. It is the responsibility of a bus driver to walk the entire length of the bus after each route has been finished to make sure there is no one left on the bus. Evidently this is not a practice all bus drivers care to make sure they do because when the bus is taken to a temporary parking place until the afternoon route, they were surprised to find a small child had fallen asleep in the morning and had been left on the bus all alone for the entire day. This can be a very dangerous and scary situation when a five or six year old wakes up all alone and is made to sit for hours in hunger and sometimes cold or very hot temperatures in a closed up and empty bus.

Even though the aid of cameras have been installed in many school buses around the country, these types of incidents are still continuing to rise overall. Parents need to take the time to get to know their child’s school bus driver and find out how responsible they might be. Be sure to ask your child about what is going on their school bus and if there are any suspicious things happening that they tell you about, take it to the school principal or even the school board to make sure your child’s bus ride is as safe as possible.

3 P's to Relieve Parent Stress While Travelling With Kids, Toddlers, and Young Children

Traveling with “little ones” can be one of the most joyous events of all-it can also be one of the most stressful. Parent stress is usually high when traveling with small children or toddlers as children in this age bracket have multiple needs, short attention spans and are easily bored or agitated when cooped up for a long time. Traveling with children can be stressful, but with enough preparation and forethought you can ensure a relatively tears-free trip, for both you and your child.

Here are the 3 P’s to prepare you before traveling and alleviate parent stress:

Plan:
Planning… Planning… Planning, there is no escape from this. If adventurous, unplanned holidays gave you a high in the past remember one thing – they have to be forgotten when you have kids – else you will only create more parent stress. There are ways to reduce anxiety when traveling with little children, though it takes meticulous planning in advance and flexibility during the trip. Planning involves:
o deciding where to go to,
o how to go,
o what to do and know about the place you are visiting and
o how to be prepared for the travel.

For deciding where to go, ask your travel agent for family-friendly suggestions. See your doctor about vaccinations beforehand. The most important step is to decide how to travel. Take all the pros and cons of different modes of travel before deciding the mode of travel. Depending on the mode of travel, plan for stuff like breaks, overnight stays, availability of airport transit facilities etc so that you and your child are comfortable.

An important tip to relieve parent stress while traveling is to ensure that you have enough rest breaks. Do not jam-pack the trip with lots of activities; have days of relaxing so that your children do not feel very tired. Keeping your trip as simple as you can and it will reduce the number of problems.

Prepare:
Once you are through with planning a trip the next step is to prepare for the trip. This step involves actually mentally, physically and emotionally preparing you for the trip. Once you have decided on the place to travel and the mode of transport you will need to prepare for the following:

o How do you prepare for the place you are visiting?
o What sort of accommodation you want?
o What to bear in mind and prepare depending on the mode of travel?
o What do you need to carry with you?

Preparing for the place you are traveling requires you to know about the facilities that the place provides like supermarkets, availability of key food and hygiene brands required for your child, availability of medical care, what to avoid eating and drinking, where to avoid visiting etc. This research will help you to be better prepared for the trip and you would know what to expect.

The most important preparation is for the mode of transport. If you are traveling by air or train remember to:
o Purchase an extra ticket if you can afford, else request an aisle seat, which can give you more mobility and quicker access to your seat when boarding and de-boarding. Also, in case of air travel ask for bulkhead seats or seats near an exit to give your child a safe spot to play on the floor.
o Schedule the flight during night so that your baby sleeps most of the time.
o Allow more time for security checks, getting to the gates or your platform at the station, and unexpected events.
o Bring nutritious snacks for your kids and for yourself; you don’t want to be caught hungry with no food options in sight.

When traveling by car:
o Use appropriate restraints, such as seat-belts or car seats.
o Don’t stack items in a way that they fall all over if you have to brake suddenly.
o Use shade cloth to keep the sun from shining in your child’s face or wear sunscreen.
o Be prepared for plenty of toilet and rest stops are taken to reduce motion sickness. This needs to be planned in the travel. Also check with your doctor on the drugs you can give to your child to reduce motion sickness.

The last step in preparation is to decide what you should carry with you when you travel. Here the key tips are:
o First aid box containing items such as baby paracetamol, thermometer, anti-itching lotion, oral re-hydration preparation and band-aids. Also pack sunscreen, hats and insect repellent.
o Take sterilizing equipment if your child is bottle-fed.
o Pack, lots of toys that keep your child busy and not bored. Also avoid too much of sharing between kids, which can lead to quarrels.
o Prepare to carry loads of nutritious snacks and food when going out for sight seeing.
o Take your own stroller or pram, even though it is bulky.
o Take some familiar items from home – blanket, stuffed toy – this will keep your child occupied and give them some comfort.

Pursue:
The final step to relieving Parent Stress, while traveling is to pursue your plan and execute on it when you are on vacation. Before you even embark on your travel, if the baby is sick, postpone the travel – if they get sick during the travel try and cut the travel short. Actually visit the doctor and get all vaccinations and clear all doubts regarding the place you are visiting.

Before traveling, to help pack for the trip and to keep your child’s various supplies organized, it might be a good idea to make a personalized travel box for each child. If traveling by air, feed your baby or child when starting and towards end of the trip, as the frequent swallowing can help prevent the build-up of pressure inside the ears. Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids to reduce the risk of dehydration. During the flight, stick to smaller and more frequent feedings. Also supervise flight attendants when they heat your meals for the child.

If traveling by car, make sure your child eats something before traveling, but avoid heavy or greasy foods. Entice your child to look out the window by pointing to several things along the way. Also try and have a few surprises up your sleeve, like a travel toy or game that can be opened only after you begin your travel. This will avoid boredom in travel for kids especially when doing long haul flights or long road/train journeys.

Once on holidays, take all precautions when visiting new places – like not leaving the child unattended, being vigilant about the potential dangers of unfamiliar places, such as not fenced swimming pools or balconies. Try to keep a little bit of familiar mealtime routine so that the kids do not get cranky. Ring ahead and check out for availability of children’s menu to avoid surprises and for younger kids prepare them to eat “jarred” or “tinned” baby food as fresh food might not always be available. Wherever possible, use disposable items and use any babysitting facilities at your hotel so you can have a break.

The most important thing, however, is to be flexible! Your baby won’t be able to have the same sleeps, so if you think the baby is tired, take a day off. Use the extra days you have planned to relax and don’t pack them with more travel.

For kids above five years, you can allow them to choose some items to pack or provide them with a choice of seat or allow them to move around the platform or terminal while waiting for next train or flight. This will help them gain a sense of control in the experience and they will be lot better behaved and less bored. Finally maintain a cool head during the trip. Remember to focus your attention on the trip itself and all the fun that comes with it, rather than on the hassles of travel as these hassles are short lived. This way you can have a wonderful time with your family.

Emo Fashion of the Present

Emo fashion has changed over the years. While there are some basic generalizations across the board, the emo fashion style has changed from a pretty tight dress code to a much more relaxed style that encompasses a variety of different elements.

It’s still a popular trend among emos to flat iron their hair as straight as humanly possible. The dramatic side swooping band covering one eye is no longer a huge trend in the emo culture, though many still have long bands going across one side of the face. A few additional hairstyles have been added to the repertoire of guy emo hairstyles, like spiking the back of the hair. The female emo hairstyle hasn’t changed much and still retains its Elvira like appearance.

While many emos still dye their hair black, it’s no longer a hardcore requirement for the style. There are quite a few emos out there that dye their hair platinum blonde instead. It seems to have become more about how you wear your hair than what color your hair is. The newest hot female emo hair accessory is multi-colored hair extensions. In fact, coloring part of your hair a radical color was quite the trend for a while.

Fewer emo guys wear guy liner now than when the emo trend originally became popular. Like many of the original emo fashion trends it has faded into the background.

Tight clothing is still very much in style with the emo culture, though much of it has taken a more modern look. Stripes are popular in emo fashion as well as stars, hearts, skulls, nautical stars, and sparrows. Emo females typically wear more trendy fashion as opposed to the original vintage style.

Piercings have also seen an expanded horizon. Many emos have gone from a single lip piercing to snake bites. Hip piercing has also recently become popular.

There’s really no telling how much more the emo fashion style will evolve. Unlike many other fashion styles the stability of emo culture changes as time passes. Some imagine that it will fade out completely with time. Until it does though, it will certainly be interesting to keep an eye on the rising and falling trends

Top Reasons To Look Into Party Bus Rentals

Planning a big night on the town can turn into a big pain in the neck when more than a few people are involved. Between selecting where to go and what to do, few adults have the time to think about who will serve as the designated driver or drivers. When party bus rentals are considered, this concern is eliminated and quite a few other perks are delivered, as well.

Looking into party bus rentals makes sense for everything from prom night to bachelor parties and beyond. Whether the party is in Los Angeles, Las Vegas or elsewhere, these buses can really help ensure the fun continues without any hassle.

Some of the top reasons to look into party bus rentals for small-to-medium-sized parties include:

· Convenience. It is often much easier to look into party bus rentals than to try and figure out who will do the driving. When these services are used, it is even possible to make arrangements for everyone in the party to be picked up and then dropped back off at their own homes at the end of the evening. It doesn’t get easier than that.

· Onboard entertainment. The rules of the road for drinking in regard to party bus rentals might vary from state to state, but the fact of the matter is the fun can continue en route. With many party bus rentals offering onboard restrooms, TV/DVD combos and rather nice sound systems, getting there can be half the fun.

· Professional drivers. Party bus rentals always come with professional drivers at the wheel. This takes worry out of the proposition and puts the burden of dealing with traffic on a pro who knows how to handle the job. In big cities like Los Angeles and Las Vegas, this can be a real big hassle that’s instantly removed. In some cases, party bus rentals come with drivers who also know how to jazz up the ride by providing tour information, onboard entertainment and more.

· Logistical simplicity. It is infinitely easier to put an entire party onto a bus and have everyone stay together at multiple stops along the way. When party bus rentals are used, everyone arrives at the same time.

· Economical. In most cases, it is very economical to look at party bus rentals versus driving a number of private vehicles. When the hassles that are removed from a party are considered, the cost savings really can amount to a lot.

· Safer. When adults are looking at party bus rentals for big occasions, it is generally just plain smart and a whole lot safer to let someone else drive. This ensures that everyone can have a good time and leave the concerns about drinking behind. When door-to-door service is added into the mix, the benefits really add up.

Party bus rentals in California, Georgia and elsewhere make a great deal of sense for small parties and large. When getting there is half the fun, these rentals can very much shine.

Prenuptial Agreements – The Before Marriage Divorce Contract

A prenuptial agreement, also called a “pre-nup”, or “premarital agreement”, is an agreement made by couples planning to get married. The pre-nup governs how issues such as dividing marital assets, and alimony will be dealt with if the marriage should end in a divorce.

Without a prenuptial or post-nuptial agreement, a divorced couple’s property will be divided and any maintenance awarded in accordance with Nevada statutes and case law. Any couple looking to save themselves from the circus called, divorce court, should seriously consider a pre-nup. Such an agreement is especially important if one or both parties are on their second or subsequent marriage, if they have children from a previous marriage, or have significant personal assets which they do not want to be subject to the whims of a family court judge.

Are Prenuptial Agreements Enforceable in Divorce Court?

Yes, unless there are defects in their negotiation or content. Originally, most states would not enforce prenuptial agreements because they felt such agreements were “in derogation of marriage”, meaning the agreements work against the principle of married for life. However, in the early seventies, following other states, Nevada held prenuptial agreements to be generally enforceable in, Buettner v. Buettner, 1973. So your agreement will be enforceable if it is properly done.

Why Draft a Prenup?

The most important reason to draft a pre-nup is to save you time and money, if your marriage ends in divorce. By agreeing to terms now, when you love each other, the divorce tends to run simpler, when the bliss has worn off. With a prenuptial agreement you know how things are going to be divided. Giving you peace of mind and costing you drastically less money in divorce attorney fees.

Pre-nups are not romantic. Approaching the conversation is a buzz kill. Most couples find it difficult to discuss the ending of a marriage. You’re in love, and going to be married forever. Why would you need a divorce agreement? Because like life, divorce happens. You have less of a chance of finding your home on fire, and yet you buy home insurance. Signing a pre-nup is not dooming your marriage. Many couples feel siging a pre-nup solidifies each other’s marriage commitments.

What’s in a Prenuptial Agreement?

In 1989, Nevada adopted the Uniform Premarital Agreements Act (UPAA), which can be found in the Nevada Revised Statutes at Title 123A. Under the UPAA, parties to a prenuptial agreement are allowed to agree with regard to:

1. Rights of property which the parties already have or might acquire during the marriage;
2. Any rights to buy, sell, lease or mortgage such property;
3. The disposition of property upon separation, divorce, or death of one of the parties;
4. Alimony; and
5. Any other rights and obligations of the parties which are allowed to be governed by private contract, i.e. are not governed by statute.

Separate property is the main focus of most prenuptial agreements. If you are coming into a marriage with real estate, retirement accounts, or cash, you might want to keep these assets separate from your community property. Community property is divided equally if a divorce happens. Separate property is not divided. A pre-nup often includes a waiver by both parties of any rights in property the other spouse acquired before the marriage. This is important if you who wish to preserve the assets they bring into a marriage.

Couples can also agree that property acquired by one partner after the marriage, which would ordinarily become community property, will remain the separate property of that spouse. For example, you might be halfway to earning a huge bonus, stock options, or maybe a future book deal. By agreeing these assets are to remain separate property you limit this argument in court.

A pre-nup may include language about limiting alimony (aka spousal support) in the case of a divorce. We are even seeing an increase in “fidelity clauses” being linked to spousal support. If a spouse has an affair the spousal support can be limited or increased, depending on your wishes. However, if the elimination or modification of alimony for a spouse results in that spouse needing public assistance, a court may disregard this portion of the agreement.

Two subjects of major concern to many couples contemplating marriage cannot be governed by prenuptial agreements: child custody and child support. By Nevada law, a court must decide these matters based on the standard of the best interests of the child and specific factors at the time of the decision. A premarital agreement signed before children are born would be unable to discuss the future factors. So, any private agreement between the parties on these subjects will not be binding.

When are Pre-Nups Not Enforced?

Prenuptial agreements are contracts between spouses. Like all contracts, in order to be binding, an agreement must be entered into by both parties knowingly and without any coercion, duress or fraud. Because of the closeness of the relationship between engaged persons, courts scrutinize prenuptial agreements especially closely.

First, the agreement must be entered into voluntarily. This means the agreement is not valid if one of the parties executed it under “duress,” a legal term meaning “pressure.” Agreements are often executed under some type of pressure; therefore, not every type of pressure will constitute duress.

While threats of physical violence or blackmail would clearly constitute duress, time between signing the agreement and the wedding date is the biggest culprit. Courts will void a pre-nup because the bride felt pressure to sign a pre-nup three days before the wedding. The typical cause being the emotional stress of having to cancel the wedding, and explain to hundreds of guests why the wedding was canceled. It’s not a gun to the head, but just as scary for some.

The threat of calling off the wedding is not always enough to be duress. Most courts reason that a party has a legal right to call off a wedding at any time. The courts look for other factors such as the unavailability of legal counsel for one spouse, or a one-sided agreement. For more examples of what constitutes duress, see “Voluntary Consent in Prenuptial Agreements”.

It is advisable for couples to allow plenty of time to negotiate and draft an agreement. To avoid the issue of duress being raised in the event of a divorce, couples should again allow several weeks, and even a month or so before the wedding date, for the process of negotiating and executing the agreement. Each side should also consult their own attorney.

Second, the agreement must be entered into “knowingly.” The UPAA requires that both parties be provided a “fair and reasonable disclosure” of the property and financial obligations of the other party. This means that income, real property, bank accounts, investments and all debts must be disclosed. This requirement underscores the advisability of allowing adequate time for consideration of the agreement.

The Nevada Supreme Court has held that where the husband failed to make the disclosures necessary to permit the wife to make an informed decision with respect to the premarital agreement, the agreement is invalid, Fick v. Fick, 1993. The court held that an incomplete list of the husband’s assets, given to the wife shortly before the wedding, and on the basis of which the wife signed the prenuptial agreement, did not constitute full disclosure.

Third, the agreement must be entered into without the presence of fraud. Fraud occurs when a party deliberately or negligently misleads the other party. Obviously, deliberately misstating or concealing one’s financial information would constitute fraud. However, as stated above prenuptial agreements are held to a higher degree of scrutiny than regular commercial contracts; courts require a high degree of honesty on the part of each party, called a fiduciary duty to the other party. Therefore, if the resulting agreement is excessively one-sided, courts will presume the existence of fraud, and, unless this presumption is rebutted in court, will invalidate the agreement.

In Sogg v. Nevada State Bank, the Nevada Supreme Court concluded that a premarital agreement would be presumed fraudulent where it left a wife with no resources or means of support in the event of a divorce, and where the wife probably would have received more under the community property laws of Nevada were it not for the premarital agreement.

The presumption may be overcome by a showing that the party claiming disadvantage was not in fact disadvantaged. Factors to consider include whether the disadvantaged party (1) had ample opportunity to obtain the advice of an independent attorney, (2) was not coerced into making a rash decision by circumstances, (3) had substantial business experience and acumen, and (4) was aware of the financial resources of the other party and understood the rights that were being forfeited.

The court in Sogg, held that where the premarital agreement was drafted by the husband’s attorney, the wife was never given an opportunity to obtain the assistance of her own counsel, was not given a copy of the agreement until the morning of the wedding, and the wife’s business experience was scanty. The court held that the presumption of fraud was not overcome, and the agreement was invalid.
Fair Pre-Nups

A contract is “unconscionable” if it is so one-sided as to be fundamentally unfair. In some states, a prenuptial agreement will be upheld even if it is one-sided and is a bad bargain for one of the parties, as long as it is made voluntarily and with full disclosure by each party. However, the Nevada Supreme Court doesn’t lean this way. In the Fick case, the court took into account the results of the agreement. It invalidated the agreement partly because the agreement eliminated alimony for the wife, which she would have been entitled to, and gave the wife much less community property than she would have received under community property laws. This indicates that Nevada courts will look at the substantive outcome of an agreement in determining fairness and validity.

It is apparent the reasons prenuptial agreements will be rendered unenforceable tend to overlap. In practice, facts which indicate there was not adequate disclosure by a party or which indicate the presence of duress may also be used to find fraud, unconscionably, etc. The overall lesson for couples is therefore: allow sufficient time for negotiation; have separate divorce lawyers available for both parties, disclose all assets, financial information and anything else the other party might reasonably want to know, and to attempt to treat the other spouse as fairly possible.

Banking Fraud – Prevention and Control

Banking Fraud is posing threat to Indian Economy. Its vibrant effect can be understood be the fact that in the year 2004 number of Cyber Crime were 347 in India which rose to 481 in 2005 showing an increase of 38.5% while I.P.C. category crime stood at 302 in 2005 including 186 cases of cyber fraud and 68 cases cyber forgery. Thus it becomes very important that occurrence of such frauds should be minimized. More upsetting is the fact that such frauds are entering in Banking Sector as well.

In the present day, Global Scenario Banking System has acquired new dimensions. Banking did spread in India. Today, the banking system has entered into competitive markets in areas covering resource mobilization, human resource development, customer services and credit management as well.

Indian’s banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit, the most striking of which is its reach. In fact, Indian banks are now spread out into the remotest areas of our country. Indian banking, which was operating in a highly comfortable and protected environment till the beginning of 1990s, has been pushed into the choppy waters of intense competition.

A sound banking system should possess three basic characteristics to protect depositor’s interest and public faith. Theses are (i) a fraud free culture, (ii) a time tested Best Practice Code, and (iii) an in house immediate grievance remedial system. All these conditions are their missing or extremely weak in India. Section 5(b) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 defines banking… “Banking is the accepting for the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the purpose of lending or investment, deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdraw able by cheque, draft, order or otherwise.” But if his money has fraudulently been drawn from the bank the latter is under strict obligation to pay the depositor. The bank therefore has to ensure at all times that the money of the depositors is not drawn fraudulently. Time has come when the security aspects of the banks have to be dealt with on priority basis.

The banking system in our country has been taking care of all segments of our socioeconomic set up. The Article contains a discussion on the rise of banking frauds and various methods that can be used to avoid such frauds. A bank fraud is a deliberate act of omission or commission by any person carried out in the course of banking transactions or in the books of accounts, resulting in wrongful gain to any person for a temporary period or otherwise, with or without any monetary loss to the bank. The relevant provisions of Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Contract Act, and Negotiable Instruments Act relating to banking frauds has been cited in the present Article.

EVOLUTION OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

Banking system occupies an important place in a nation’s economy. A banking institution is indispensable in a modern society. It plays a pivotal role in economic development of a country and forms the core of the money market in an advanced country.

Banking industry in India has traversed a long way to assume its present stature. It has undergone a major structural transformation after the nationalization of 14 major commercial banks in 1969 and 6 more on 15 April 1980. The Indian banking system is unique and perhaps has no parallels in the banking history of any country in the world.

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA-ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OBJECTIVE

The Reserve Bank of India has an important role to play in the maintenance of the exchange value of the rupee in view of the close interdependence of international trade and national economic growth and well being. This aspect is of the wider responsibly of the central bank for the maintenance of economic and financial stability. For this the bank is entrusted with the custody and the management of country’s international reserves; it acts also as the agent of the government in respect of India’s membership of the international monetary fund. With economic development the bank also performs a variety of developmental and promotional functions which in the past were registered being outside the normal purview of central banking. It also acts an important regulator.

BANK FRAUDS: CONCEPT AND DIMENSIONS

Banks are the engines that drive the operations in the financial sector, which is vital for the economy. With the nationalization of banks in 1969, they also have emerged as engines for social change. After Independence, the banks have passed through three stages. They have moved from the character based lending to ideology based lending to today competitiveness based lending in the context of India’s economic liberalization policies and the process of linking with the global economy.

While the operations of the bank have become increasingly significant banking frauds in banks are also increasing and fraudsters are becoming more and more sophisticated and ingenious. In a bid to keep pace with the changing times, the banking sector has diversified it business manifold. And the old philosophy of class banking has been replaced by mass banking. The challenge in management of social responsibility with economic viability has increased.

DEFINITION OF FRAUD

Fraud is defined as “any behavior by which one person intends to gain a dishonest advantage over another”. In other words , fraud is an act or omission which is intended to cause wrongful gain to one person and wrongful loss to the other, either by way of concealment of facts or otherwise.

Fraud is defined u/s 421 of the Indian Penal Code and u/s 17 of the Indian Contract Act. Thus essential elements of frauds are:

1. There must be a representation and assertion;

2. It must relate to a fact;

3. It must be with the knowledge that it is false or without belief in its truth; and

4. It must induce another to act upon the assertion in question or to do or not to do certain act.

BANK FRAUDS

Losses sustained by banks as a result of frauds exceed the losses due to robbery, dacoity, burglary and theft-all put together. Unauthorized credit facilities are extended for illegal gratification such as case credit allowed against pledge of goods, hypothecation of goods against bills or against book debts. Common modus operandi are, pledging of spurious goods, inletting the value of goods, hypothecating goods to more than one bank, fraudulent removal of goods with the knowledge and connivance of in negligence of bank staff, pledging of goods belonging to a third party. Goods hypothecated to a bank are found to contain obsolete stocks packed in between goods stocks and case of shortage in weight is not uncommon.

An analysis made of cases brings out broadly the under mentioned four major elements responsible for the commission of frauds in banks.

1. Active involvement of the staff-both supervisor and clerical either independent of external elements or in connivance with outsiders.

2. Failure on the part of the bank staff to follow meticulously laid down instructions and guidelines.

3. External elements perpetuating frauds on banks by forgeries or manipulations of cheques, drafts and other instruments.

4. There has been a growing collusion between business, top banks executives, civil servants and politicians in power to defraud the banks, by getting the rules bent, regulations flouted and banking norms thrown to the winds.

FRAUDS-PREVENTION AND DETECTION

A close study of any fraud in bank reveals many common basic features. There may have been negligence or dishonesty at some stage, on part of one or more of the bank employees. One of them may have colluded with the borrower. The bank official may have been putting up with the borrower’s sharp practices for a personal gain. The proper care which was expected of the staff, as custodians of banks interest may not have been taken. The bank’s rules and procedures laid down in the Manual instructions and the circulars may not have been observed or may have been deliberately ignored.

Bank frauds are the failure of the banker. It does not mean that the external frauds do not defraud banks. But if the banker is upright and knows his job, the task of defrauder will become extremely difficult, if not possible.

Detection of Frauds

Despite all care and vigilance there may still be some frauds, though their number, periodicity and intensity may be considerably reduced. The following procedure would be very helpful if taken into consideration:

1. All relevant data-papers, documents etc. Should be promptly collected. Original vouchers or other papers forming the basis of the investigation should be kept under lock and key.

2. All persons in the bank who may be knowing something about the time, place a modus operandi of the fraud should be examined and their statements should be recorded.

3. The probable order of events should thereafter be reconstructed by the officer, in his own mind.

4. It is advisable to keep the central office informed about the fraud and further developments in regard thereto.

Classification of Frauds and Action Required by Banks

The Reserve Bank of India had set-up a high level committee in 1992 which was headed by Mr. A… Ghosh, the then Dy. Governor Reserve Bank of India to inquire into various aspects relating to frauds malpractice in banks. The committee had noticed/observed three major causes for perpetration of fraud as given hereunder:

1. Laxity in observance of the laid down system and procedures by operational and supervising staff.

2. Over confidence reposed in the clients who indulged in breach of trust.

3. Unscrupulous clients by taking advantages of the laxity in observance of established, time tested safeguards also committed frauds.

In order to have uniformity in reporting cases of frauds, RBI considered the question of classification of bank frauds on the basis of the provisions of the IPC.
Given below are the Provisions and their Remedial measures that can be taken.

1. Cheating (Section 415, IPC)

Remedial Measures.

The preventive measures in respect of the cheating can be concentrated on cross-checking regarding identity, genuineness, verification of particulars, etc. in respect of various instruments as well as persons involved in encashment or dealing with the property of the bank.

2. Criminal misappropriation of property (Section 403 IPC).

Remedial Measure

Criminal misappropriation of property, presuppose the custody or control of funds or property, so subjected, with that of the person committing such frauds. Preventive measures, for this class of fraud should be taken at the level the custody or control of the funds or property of the bank generally vests. Such a measure should be sufficient, it is extended to these persons who are actually handling or having actual custody or control of the fund or movable properties of the bank.

3. Criminal breach of trust (Section 405, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Care should be taken from the initial step when a person comes to the bank. Care needs to be taken at the time of recruitment in bank as well.

4. Forgery (Section 463, IPC)

Remedial Measure

Both the prevention and detection of frauds through forgery are important for a bank. Forgery of signatures is the most frequent fraud in banking business. The bank should take special care when the instrument has been presented either bearer or order; in case a bank pays forged instrument he would be liable for the loss to the genuine costumer.

5. Falsification of accounts (Section 477A)

Remedial Measure

Proper diligence is required while filling of forms and accounts. The accounts should be rechecked on daily basis.

6. Theft (Section 378, IPC)

Remedial Measures

Encashment of stolen’ cheque can be prevented if the bank clearly specify the age, sex and two visible identify action marks on the body of the person traveler’s cheques on the back of the cheque leaf. This will help the paying bank to easily identify the cheque holder. Theft from lockers and safe deposit vaults are not easy to commit because the master-key remains with the banker and the individual key of the locker is handed over to the costumer with due acknowledgement.

7. Criminal conspiracy (Section 120 A, IPC)

In the case of State of Andhra Pradesh v. IBS Prasad Rao and Other, the accused, who were clerks in a cooperative Central Bank were all convicted of the offences of cheating under Section 420 read along with Section 120 A. all the four accused had conspired together to defraud the bank by making false demand drafts and receipt vouchers.

8. Offences relating to currency notes and banks notes (Section 489 A-489E, IPC)
These sections provide for the protection of currency-notes and bank notes from forgery. The offences under section are:

(a) Counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(b) Selling, buying or using as genuine, forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank notes. Knowing the same to be forged or counterfeit.

(c) Possession of forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank-notes, knowing or counterfeit and intending to use the same as genuine.

(d) Making or passing instruments or materials for forging or counterfeiting currency notes or banks.

(e) Making or using documents resembling currency-notes or bank notes.

Most of the above provisions are Cognizable Offenses under Section 2(c) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

FRAUD PRONE AREAS IN DIFFERENT ACCOUNTS

The following are the potential fraud prone areas in Banking Sector. In addition to those areas I have also given kinds of fraud that are common in these areas.

Savings Bank Accounts

The following are some of the examples being played in respect of savings bank accounts:

(a) Cheques bearing the forged signatures of depositors may be presented and paid.

(b) Specimen signatures of the depositors may be changed, particularly after the death of depositors,

(c) Dormant accounts may be operated by dishonest persons with or without collusion of bank employees, and

(d) Unauthorized withdrawals from customer’s accounts by employee of the bank maintaining the savings ledger and later destruction of the recent vouchers by them.

Current Account Fraud

The following types are likely to be committed in case of current accounts.

(a) Opening of frauds in the names of limited companies or firms by unauthorized persons;

(b) Presentation and payment of cheques bearing forged signatures;

(c) Breach of trust by the employees of the companies or firms possessing cheque leaves duly signed by the authorized signatures;

(d) Fraudulent alteration of the amount of the cheques and getting it paid either at the counter or though another bank.

Frauds In Case Of Advances

Following types may be committed in respect of advances:

(a) Spurious gold ornaments may be pledged.

(b) Sub-standard goods may be pledged with the bank or their value may be shown at inflated figures.
(c) Same goods may be hypothecated in favour of different banks.

LEGAL REGIME TO CONTROL BANK FRAUDS

Frauds constitute white-collar crime, committed by unscrupulous persons deftly advantage of loopholes existing in systems/procedures. The ideal situation is one there is no fraud, but taking ground realities of the nation’s environment and human nature’s fragility, an institution should always like to keep the overreach of frauds at the minimum occurrence level.

Following are the relevant sections relating to Bank Frauds

Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860)

(a) Section 23 “Wrongful gain”.-

“Wrongful gain” is gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled.

(b) “Wrongful loss”

“Wrongful loss” is the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing it is legally entitled.
(c) Gaining wrongfully.

Losing wrongfully-A person is said to gain wrongfully when such person retains wrongfully, as well as when such person acquires wrongfully. A person is said to lose wrongfully when such person is wrongfully kept out of any property, as well as when such person is wrongfully deprived of property.

(d) Section 24. “Dishonestly”

Whoever does anything with the intention of causing wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person, is said to do that thing “dishonestly”.

(e) Section 28. “Counterfeit”

A person is said to “counterfeit” who causes one thing to resemble another thing, intending by means of that resemblance to practice deception, or knowing it to be likely that deception will thereby be practiced.

BREACH OF TRUST

1. Section 408- Criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant.

2. Section 409- Criminal breach of trust by public servant, or by banker, merchant or agent.

3. Section 416- Cheating by personating

4. Section 419- Punishment for cheating by personation.

OFFENSES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS

1) Section 463-Forgery

2) Section 464 -Making a false document

3) Section 465- Punishment for forgery.

4) Section 467- Forgery of valuable security, will, etc

5) Section 468- Forgery for purpose of cheating

6) Section 469- Forgery for purpose of harming reputation

7) Section 470- Forged document.

8) Section 471- Using as genuine a forged document

9) Section 477- Fraudulent cancellation, destruction, etc., of will, authority to adopt, or valuable security.

10) Section 477A- Falsification of accounts.

THE RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1934

Issue of demand bills and notes Section 31.

Provides that only Bank and except provided by Central Government shall be authorized to draw, accept, make or issue any bill of exchange, hundi, promissory note or engagement for the payment of money payable to bearer on demand, or borrow, owe or take up any sum or sums of money on the bills, hundis or notes payable to bearer on demand of any such person

THE NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT, 1881

Holder’s right to duplicate of lost bill Section 45A.

1. The finder of lost bill or note acquires no title to it. The title remains with the true owner. He is entitled to recover from the true owner.

2. If the finder obtains payment on a lost bill or note in due course, the payee may be able to get a valid discharge for it. But the true owner can recover the money due on the instrument as damages from the finder.

Section 58

When an Instrument is obtained by unlawful means or for unlawful consideration no possessor or endorse who claims through the person who found or so obtained the instrument is entitled to receive the amount due thereon from such maker, accept or holder, or from any party prior to such holder, unless such possessor or endorse is, or some person through whom he claims was, a holder thereof in due course.

Section 85:

Cheque payable to order.

1. By this section, bankers are placed in privileged position. It provides that if an order cheque is endorsed by or on behalf of the payee, and the banker on whom it is drawn pays it in due course, the banker is discharged. He can debit his customer with the amount so paid, though the endorsement of the payee might turn out to be a forgery.

2. The claim protection under this section the banker has to prove that the payment was a payment in due course, in good faith and without negligence.

Section 87. Effect of material alteration

Under this section any alteration made without the consent of party would be void. Alteration would be valid only if is made with common intention of the party.

Section 138. Dishonour of cheque for insufficiency, etc., of funds in the account.

Where any cheque drawn by a person on an account maintained by him with a banker for payment of any amount of money to another person from out of that account for the discharge, in whole or in part, of any debt or other liability, is returned by the bank unpaid. either because of the amount of money standing to the credit of that account is insufficient to honor the cheque or that it exceeds the amount arranged to be paid from that account by an agreement made with that bank, such person shall be deemed to have committed an offense and shall, without prejudice.

Section 141(1) Offenses by companies.

If the person committing an offense under Section 138 is a company, every person who, at the time the offense was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offense and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

SECURITY REGIME IN BANKING SYSTEM

Security implies sense of safety and of freedom from danger or anxiety. When a banker takes a collateral security, say in the form of gold or a title deed, against the money lent by him, he has a sense of safety and of freedom from anxiety about the possible non-payment of the loan by the borrower. These should be communicated to all strata of the organization through appropriate means. Before staff managers should analyze current practices. Security procedure should be stated explicitly and agreed upon by each user in the specific environment. Such practices ensure information security and enhance availability. Bank security is essentially a defense against unforced attacks by thieves, dacoits and burglars.

PHYSICAL SECURITY MEASURES-CONCEPT

A large part of banks security depends on social security measures. Physical security measures can be defined as those specific and special protective or defensive measures adopted to deter, detect, delay, defend and defeat or to perform any one or more of these functions against culpable acts, both covert and covert and acclamation natural events. The protective or defensive, measures adopted involve construction, installation and deployment of structures, equipment and persons respectively.

The following are few guidelines to check malpractices:

1. To rotate the cash work within the staff.

2. One person should not continue on the same seat for more than two months.

3. Daybook should not be written by the Cashier where an other person is available to the job

4. No cash withdrawal should be allowed within passbook in case of withdrawal by pay order.

5. The branch manager should ensure that all staff members have recorder their presence in the attendance registrar, before starting work.

Execution of Documents

1. A bank officer must adopt a strict professional approach in the execution of documents. The ink and the pen used for the execution must be maintained uniformly.

2. Bank documents should not be typed on a typewriter for execution. These should be invariably handwritten for execution.

3. The execution should always be done in the presence of the officer responsible for obtain them,
4. The borrowers should be asked to sign in full signatures in same style throughout the documents.

5. Unless there is a specific requirement in the document, it should not be got attested or witnessed as such attestation may change the character of the instruments and the documents may subject to ad volrem stamp duty.

6. The paper on which the bank documents are made should be pilfer proof. It should be unique and available to the banks only.

7. The printing of the bank documents should have highly artistic intricate and complex graphics.

8. The documents executed between Banker and Borrowers must be kept in safe custody,

CHANGES IN LEGISLATION AFTER ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS

1. Section 91 of IPC shall be amended to include electronic documents also.

2. Section 92 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872 shall be amended to include commuter based communications

3. Section 93 of Bankers Book Evidence Act, 1891 has been amended to give legal sanctity for books of account maintained in the electronic form by the banks.

4. Section 94 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1939 shall be amended to facilitate electronic fund transfers between the financial institutions and the banks. A new clause (pp) has been inserted in Section 58(2).

RECENT TRENDS OF BANKING SYSTEM IN INDIA

In the banking and financial sectors, the introduction of electronic technology for transactions, settlement of accounts, book-keeping and all other related functions is now an imperative. Increasingly, whether we like it or not, all banking transactions are going to be electronic. The thrust is on commercially important centers, which account for 65 percent of banking business in terms of value. There are now a large number of fully computerized branches across the country.

A switchover from cash-based transactions to paper-based transactions is being accelerated. Magnetic Ink character recognition clearing of cheques is now operational in many cities, beside the four metro cities. In India, the design, management and regulation of electronically-based payments system are becoming the focus of policy deliberations. The imperatives of developing an effective, efficient and speedy payment and settlement systems are getting sharper with introduction of new instruments such as credit cards, telebanking, ATMs, retail Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Electronic Clearing Services (ECS). We are moving towards smart cards, credit and financial Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for straight through processing.

Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001

Further the Financial Fraud (Investigation, Prosecution, Recovery and Restoration of property) Bill, 2001 was introduced in Parliament to curb the menace of Bank Fraud. The Act was to prohibit, control, investigate financial frauds; recover and restore properties subject to such fraud; prosecute for causing financial fraud and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Under the said act the term Financial Fraud has been defined as under:

Section 512 – Financial Fraud

Financial frauds means and includes any of the following acts committed by a person or with his connivance, or by his agent, in his dealings with any bank or financial institution or any other entity holding public funds;

1. The suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not true, by one who does not believe it to be true;

2. The active concealment of a fact by one having knowledge or belief of the fact;

3. A promise made with out any intention of performing it;

4. Any other act fitted to deceive;

5. Any such act or omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent.
Provided that whoever acquires, possesses or transfers any proceeds of financial fraud or enters into any transaction which is related to proceeds of fraud either directly or indirectly or conceals or aids in the concealment of the proceeds of financial fraud, commits financial fraud.

513(a) – Punishment for Financial Fraud

Whoever commits financial fraud shall be: (a) Punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term, which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.

(b)Whoever commits serious financial fraud shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years but shall not be less than five years and shall also be liable for fine up to double the amount involved in such fraud.

Provided that in both (a) and (b) all funds, bank accounts and properties acquired using such funds subjected to the financial fraud as may reasonably be attributed by the investigating agency shall be recovered and restored to the rightful owner according to the procedure established by law.

CONCLUSION

The Indian Banking Industry has undergone tremendous growth since nationalization of 14 banks in the year 1969. There has an almost eight times increase in the bank branches from about 8000 during 1969 to mote than 60,000 belonging to 289 commercial banks, of which 66 banks are in private sector.

It was the result of two successive Committees on Computerization (Rangarajan Committee) that set the tone for computerization in India. While the first committee drew the blue print in 1983-84 for the mechanization and computerization in banking industry, the second committee set up in 1989 paved the way for integrated use of telecommunications and computers for applying technogical breakthroughs in banking sector.

However, with the spread of banking and banks, frauds have been on a constant increase. It could be a natural corollary to increase in the number of customers who are using banks these days. In the year 2000 alone we have lost Rs 673 crores in as many as 3,072 number of fraud cases. These are only reported figures. Though, this is 0.075% of Rs 8,96,696 crores of total deposits and 0.15% of Rs 4,44,125 crores of loans & advances, there are any numbers of cases that are not reported. There were nearly 65,800 bank branches of a total of 295 commercial banks in India as on June 30, 2001 reporting a total of nearly 3,072 bank fraud cases. This makes nearly 10.4 frauds per bank and roughly 0.47 frauds per branch.

An Expert Committee on Bank Frauds (Chairman: Dr.N.L.Mitra) submitted its Report to RBI in September 2001. The Committee examined and suggested both the preventive and curative aspects of bank frauds.

The important recommendations of the Committee include:

o A need for including financial fraud as a criminal offense;

o Amendments to the IPC by including a new chapter on financial fraud;

o Amendments to the Evidence Act to shift the burden of proof on the accused person;

o Special provision in the Cr. PC for properties involved in the Financial Fraud.

o Confiscating unlawful gains; and preventive measures including the development of Best Code Procedures by banks and financial institutions.

Thus it can be concluded that following measures should necessarily be adopted by the Ministry of Finance in order to reduce cases of Fraud.

o There must be a Special Court to try financial fraud cases of serious nature.

o The law should provide separate structural and recovery procedure. Every bank must have a domestic inquiry officer to enquirer about the civil dimension of fraud.

o A fraud involving an amount of ten crore of rupees and above may be considered serious and be tried in the Special Court.

The Twenty-ninth Report of the Law Commission had dealt some categories of crimes one of which is “offenses calculated to prevent and obstruct the economic development of the country and endanger its economic health.” Offenses relating to Banking Fraud will fall under this category. The most important feature of such offenses is that ordinarily they do not involve an individual direct victim. They are punishable because they harm the whole society. It is clear that money involved in Bank belongs to public. They deposit there whole life’ security in Banks and in case of Dacoity or Robbery in banks the public will be al lost. Thus it is important that sufficient efforts should be taken in this regard.

There exists a new kind of threat in cyber world. Writers are referring it as “Salami Attack” under this a special software is used for transferring the amount from the account of the individual. Hence the culprits of such crimes should be found quickly and should be given strict punishment. Moreover there is requirement of more number of IT professionals who will help in finding a solution against all these security threats.

Practical Home Ideas – Modern Home Furniture

Quality and affordability does not usually come hand in hand in almost all things. For one to get good quality things, most likely he or she needs to spend a lot. But that is not always the case when it comes to furniture. People who do not have that big of a budget now have the chance to still get the design that they want for their homes without going over their budget. A lot of great quality furniture are sold by different furniture shops these days at very reasonable prices. Now that is very good news especially that almost all people are now doing everything they can just to stretch their budgets. Home enhancements are often associated with high expenses. But that could be a thing of the past now that one could buy a stylish and modern bedroom furniture at a very low cost.

Modern home furniture sets come in different designs and even in different colors as well. People can further increase their savings when decorating their homes since making use of these great-looking furniture would no longer require them to buy other expensive decorating materials to enhance the appearance of their homes. Just the furniture themselves would already be enough as a complement to the structure and design of the house. That gives an added benefit for all since functionality could now be combined with style through the use of modern furniture. A simple and modern glass coffee table could be used just like an accessory only that it has more purpose.

Modern furniture is also not that hard to find nowadays since a lot of shops are now selling them. Buyers would have a wide variety of designs to choose from. They get to compare different rates, quality of materials used, and the overall functionality. They also come in a wide variety so there would always be one that would be ideal for all members of the family may it be adults or children, male or female. Different price ranges are also made available so you really do not have to spend much in order to get the right one for your needs. Visit different websites or call different stores to check out what they have and for you to choose and plan which one to get.

Almost any type of sets are available out there in the market so people no need to worry about getting the right one for different parts of the house. There are modern sofas for the living room, different types of cabinets for the kitchen, beds with new designs, and many more. All that you need to do is to invest a little of your time in checking out different furniture available and determine which one would fit your home design. With these benefits offered by modern home furniture, making use of them to complement the design of your home is definitely a great idea. People could now be more practical without sacrificing the design and the quality of their home furniture.

Avail Your Transfer Needs From Taxi Services

Airport taxi service has come a long way since they were incorporated as a part of the system and there is hardly an international traveler that can get by without the airport taxi no matter how sporadic their travel.

Airport transfers are meant to bring the journey to a befitting conclusion while heightening the expectation of the impending trip and with our airport taxi transfers the journey has never so comfortable.

In the 20th century taxis to airports were the most beautiful contraptions you ever saw and although these taxi transfers were effective for the period the client may not have experienced anything out of the ordinary except that they got to the destination in one piece.

History aside our modern fleet offers the client convenient airport transfers and the wide array of taxi van services to choose only serves as a reminder that this taxi transfer is the top-notch.

These airport taxi services are also on hand to transport individuals from Gatwick to their final location in a luxurious manner. This gives the punter options that may not have previously been open and with the alternative of a taxi van service at your disposal the client is surely spoiled for choice.

When looking for a taxi transfer the patron is sure to be inundated with copious alternatives but for paramount service our taxis services are the cream of the crop and will move you effortlessly form one locale to the other.

On the other hand there is the Gatwick taxi that is sure to suit your fancy no matter how specific your requirements. All these taxi services are within reach for the discerning client that would like to have a taxi service fit for royals.

This UK airport taxi is the favored option for the first time or repeat visitor to this city and whenever there is the need for a quick trip to or from the aerodrome these taxi transfer services are well worth it both in terms of panache and comfort.

For taxi services that are sure to leave a positive and lasting memory these mini cabs are surely the only way to travel.

Learning English From Home

Learning a new language can be difficult and overwhelming, even when the language is a popular one. Many people hope to learn English through different ways of learning as a way to increase opportunities and job related skills, while others simply want to improve upon their personal knowledge. Different people learn best in different methods. Some people learn quickly by reading books themselves because they have better ability to process the information and remember it. Others might do it better when they go in a group. They can share and discuss more knowledge and gain new ideas with the teacher and friends. Some people even do better when they are alone because they don’t need somebody every time to practice. You can speak English on your own. Out of all the above options, learning English from home is the best option because it gives flexibility to learn at any convenient time.

So if you do not have adequate time to go out somewhere, but still you want to learn it anyhow, then learning English at home is the best option. Whether you are a complete beginner of the language or you already have a little knowledge of the English language, its possible to learn English at home no matter where you live. This type of English language learning will maximize your progress in English, in the shortest period of time, & that too in a relaxed and hospitable environment.

There are many advantages for choosing to learn English at home:

  • It will give you the options of different learning methods like online English learning websites, English learning kits, Podcasts etc.
  • You get flexible and hassle free learning sessions with it. Here you don’t need to plan your schedule or spend your time in going to a coaching class. You have complete convenience of choosing your own time and place for learning.
  • You are not dependent on anyone for your learning. You learn independently, which not only makes you independent but also increases your self confidence.
  • It allows the whole family as well as friends to learn using the same material. This is cost effective & furthermore it also provides flexible learning to everyone.
  • You can use these learning from home material anytime throughout your life. You can revise your learning even after a couple of months or years of your learning.

There are different ways of learning English at home. But the most important aspect is to stay motivated and practice regularly, so that you can improve your language skills. Different ways to learn English at home are:-

Books/Websites/English learning kits

To speak fluent English, you need to understand the rules of grammar. You can learn these through a book or a website or an English learning kit that specializes in teaching English. If possible, choose a resource that includes explanations in your native language. English learning kits are a huge success these days. With these, learning English has become absolute fun! These interactive English learning kits allow you to practice vocabulary as per your own time & convenience.

Flash Cards

Create flash cards that are relevant to the type of English that you wish to learn. For example, if you’re studying English for business, you’ll need to know English words that relate to business. Review the cards on a daily basis. This is a good way to build your vocabulary words.

Watching English movies

If you are a fan of English movies, then learning English can be more than fun. Learning English by watching movies is learning by input, which is both enjoyable & motivational. You learn a lot of things from watching English movies such as – pronunciation, vocabulary, style, intonation even western culture, habit etc.

Podcasts

Listening to others speak English is an essential skill. You can improve listening skills through Podcasts, which you can listen to on your Mp3 player. Start with Podcasts created for non- English speakers, which will include slow, clear language. As your skills improve, you can start listening to Podcasts on topics that interest you

Out of the several options available, it’s up to to the learner which learning method he/she wants to adopt to learn the language but one thing you should always keep in mind that whatever learning method you choose, you should be self motivated.

So learn English by staying at home & boost your confidence in your work & social life.